Christchurch City Council

Supplementary Agenda

 

 

Notice of Meeting:

An ordinary meeting of the Christchurch City Council will be held on:

 

Date:                                     Thursday 9 August 2018

Time:                                    9.30am

Venue:                                 Council Chambers, Civic Offices,
53 Hereford Street, Christchurch

 

 

Membership

Chairperson

Deputy Chairperson

Members

Mayor Lianne Dalziel

Deputy Mayor Andrew Turner

Councillor Vicki Buck

Councillor Jimmy Chen

Councillor Phil Clearwater

Councillor Pauline Cotter

Councillor Mike Davidson

Councillor David East

Councillor Anne Galloway

Councillor Jamie Gough

Councillor Yani Johanson

Councillor Aaron Keown

Councillor Glenn Livingstone

Councillor Raf Manji

Councillor Tim Scandrett

Councillor Deon Swiggs

Councillor Sara Templeton

 

 

7 August 2018

 

 

 

Principal Advisor

Dr Karleen Edwards

Chief Executive

Tel: 941 8554

 

Jo Daly

Council Secretary

941 8581

jo.daly@ccc.govt.nz

www.ccc.govt.nz

Note:  The reports contained within this agenda are for consideration and should not be construed as Council policy unless and until adopted.  If you require further information relating to any reports, please contact the person named on the report.
Watch Council meetings live on the web:
http://councillive.ccc.govt.nz/live-stream

 


Council

09 August 2018

 

 


Council

09 August 2018

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

16.     Resolution to Include Supplementary Reports...................................................................... 4

17.     Water Supply Programme Update.......................................................................................... 5  


Council

09 August 2018

 

 

16. Resolution to Include Supplementary Reports

1.       Background

1.1          Approval is sought to submit the following report to the Council meeting on 09 August 2018:

17.   Water Supply Programme Update

1.2          The reason, in terms of section 46A(7) of the Local Government Official Information and Meetings Act 1987, why the report was not included on the main agenda is that it was not available at the time the agenda was prepared.

1.3          It is appropriate that the Council receive the report at the current meeting.

2.       Recommendation

2.1          That the report be received and considered at the Council meeting on 09 August 2018.

17.   Water Supply Programme Update

 

 


Council

09 August 2018

 

 

17.    Water Supply Programme Update

Reference:

18/708141

Presenter(s):

Helen Beaumont, Programme Manager - Water Supply Improvement Programme

 

 

1.   Purpose and Origin of Report

Purpose of Report

1.1       The purpose of this report is to update the Council on the water supply improvement programme.

Origin of Report

1.2       This report is being provided to update Council on progress with respect to the Council resolution on 25 January 2018 approving the installation of temporary chlorination for up to 12 months within the Christchurch City Water and Brooklands/Kainga water supplies and the Council resolutions CNCL/2018/00073 on 26 April 2018:

 

That the Council:

1.         Reinforces the Council’s previous resolution that states: “Requests staff continue best endeavours to complete this additional work within the 12 month timeframe”.

2.         Resolves that the preferred approach to improving well head security is to raise well heads above ground wherever practicable, affordable and timely and requests staff to examine the options of installing UV treatment, including leasing and/or purchasing, as an alternative to wellhead improvements on a pump station by pump station basis where finance, timing and/or long term advantages have been considered.

3.         Approves staff to proceed with the delivery of works required to improve wellheads or install UV treatment when the solution is obvious due to its economic timing and practicality.

4.         Resolves to implement temporary chlorination in Wainui until its well is made secure.

5.         Requests staff identify funding sources to undertake the well head security improvements when the preferred approach and programme has been confirmed.

6.         Requests staff to bring back to a May ITE Committee or Council meeting, a report outlining progress to date and a draft programme of improvements proposed which takes into account the optimum solutions, timing, funding and interdependencies of the water network and future proofing.

7.         Request staff look at all other options to regain secure status or equivalent including renewal, remediating and/or the possibility of abandoning a wellhead.

2.   Significance

2.1       The decision in this report is of low significance in relation to the Christchurch City Council’s Significance and Engagement Policy.

 

3.   Staff Recommendations

That the Council:

1.         Receive the information in the water supply improvement programme update report.

2.         Note and approve the measures being taken by staff to progressively remove chlorination from pump stations, as and when the well heads have been remediated and signed off as secure by an independent suitably qualified engineer.

 

4.   Key Points

4.1       The water supply network is being managed to maximise production from pump stations without chlorination treatment. The chlorine is being removed, where remedial works have been completed, and the dose is being reduced at a number of pump stations.

4.2       Ultraviolet light is the most advantageous of the alternative disinfection technologies and is being considered for Main Pumps, in the Central water supply zone – this will be the subject of a separate report.

4.3       The first tranche of major remedial works – to raise the below ground well heads, drill new wells and make good the above ground well heads – at seven pump stations is underway.

4.4       The strategy for major remediation works for the second tranche of 17 pump stations has been confirmed and concept design is underway.

4.5       International examples of public water supplies without residual disinfection rely on high quality network infrastructure and strict control systems to manage the risk of contamination and ensure public safety.

4.6       The Minister of Health has signalled a stricter regime for potable water supply with a significant increase in the standard of infrastructure and risk management required to avoid residual disinfection / chlorination.

 

5.   Context/Background

5.1       The Christchurch water supply network has 140 operating wells and 53 pump stations. Four of these pump stations are considered to be secure and do not require disinfection treatment under the current Drinking Water Standards for New Zealand. Together these four pump stations provide approximately 5% of the water for the city.

5.2       The water supply improvement programme is seeking to return Christchurch’s water supply to secure status which would allow the removal of the temporary chlorination. Prioritising work to ensure that the drinking water supply is safe and secure was addressed in the Council’s Long Term Plan 2018-2028. Capital expenditure of $25 million has been brought forward into the first three years of the Long Term Plan to fund this programme.

5.3       There are four major streams of work:

5.3.1   Reducing chlorination in the water supply network in the short term

5.3.2   Alternative disinfection technologies

5.3.3   Well head remediation and replacement wells

5.3.4   Future water supply strategy taking into account central government reviews.

Reducing the chlorine dose

5.4       The chlorine dose can be reduced where we have at least two minutes’ contact time before the first consumer on the network. A reduction from 1 part per million (ppm) to at least 0.5 ppm has been agreed with the Drinking Water Assessor. Additional sampling points (at two minutes’ travel time from the pump station) have been installed to ensure effective disinfection.

5.5       The chlorine dose has been lowered at nine pump stations across the city:

·    Auburn, Avonhead and Crosbie in the North West supply zone

·    Hills, Kerrs and Sydenham in the Central supply zone

·    St Johns in the Central/Ferrymead supply zone

·    Picton in the Riccarton supply zone

·    Tanner in the Rocky Point supply zone.

5.6       Chlorine reduction is planned for a further six pump stations – Lake Terrace, Worcester, Marshlands, Thompsons, Kainga and Wainui.

Maximising delivery from bores with secure well heads

5.7       The water supply network is being managed to maximise the delivery from the four pump stations without disinfection treatment. A further seven pump stations have been identified where the majority of bores have above ground well heads and these can provide sufficient water to the network – this is only possible at times of low water demand, that is, during the winter months.

5.8       Minor remedial works are being carried out to 23 above ground well heads at these seven pump stations to enable these well heads to be signed off as secure – CityCare contract for $20,000 to be delivered over three weeks in July. The works include installing and/or raising air valves (above the 100 year flood), sealing around cables, sealing any cracks and/or installing new concrete plinths around the well head.

5.9       A procedure has been agreed with the Drinking Water Assessor to isolate the below ground well heads at each pump station which will allow chlorination to cease in July and August. The pump stations are:

·    Burnside and Farrington (ceased 28 July), Grampian and Thompsons in the North West zone

·    Hills and Lake Terrace in the Central zone

·    Woolston in the Ferrymead zone.

5.10    Once the chlorination has ceased at these pump stations the proportion of water without disinfection treatment will increase from approximately 5% to 24% of the water supply across the city. In the North West zone approximately 64% of the water will be untreated.

5.11    Reports of taste and odour issues have dropped dramatically since the intensive flushing of the network and the gradual favouring of untreated pump stations.

Alternative disinfection

5.12    While Christchurch’s source water has typically been assessed as sufficiently old to comply with the Drinking Water Standards for New Zealand criterion 1 for bore water security – that the bore water must not be directly affected by surface or climatic influences – there is a risk that wells drawing on the shallowest aquifer (Aquifer 1 / the Riccarton Gravels) may no longer be considered secure.

5.13    We have 17 operating wells across the city that draw on Aquifer 1. Recent results for age testing are unclear for some of these wells and further sampling, and modelling of the groundwater, is being undertaken.

5.14    If a well does not comply with criterion 1 then the water must be treated. The alternative treatment options allowed under the Drinking Water Standards have been considered (Attachment A: Brief appraisal of water treatment technologies, Opus, June 2018).

5.15    The following technologies have been assessed and costs estimated for Main Pumps where six wells take water from Aquifer 1:

·    Coagulation sedimentation and filtration – difficult with high quality source water

·    Membrane filtration – expensive to install (around $25 million)

·    Chlorine dioxide disinfection – offers little advantage over chlorine and expensive ($7 to $10 million)

·    Ozone disinfection – not suitable, as bromide levels above the limit recommended in the Drinking Water Standard, and expensive ($7 to $10 million)

·    Ultraviolet light disinfection (UV) – effective against bacteria and protozoa, and does not result in taste or odour in the water (around $2 million).

5.16    We are assessing the costs and benefits of using UV at a number of pump stations and preliminary design work has been completed for Main Pumps in the Central zone. However a site investigation into potentially contaminated sites has identified closed landfills and abandoned petroleum tanks nearby. A detailed site investigation and comprehensive water quality testing will be undertaken to determine how the risks from this contamination can be managed.

5.17    Any recommendation to proceed with UV disinfection will be the subject of a subsequent report to Council. Main Pumps provides approximately 5% of the water for the city.

Well head remediation works – tranche 1

5.18    The first tranche of major remediation works is underway for 23 wells at seven pump stations which provide approximately 17% of the water for the city.

5.19    The design work is complete and we are seeking construction tenders from potential suppliers for the well head remediation. The estimated total cost of tranche 1 is $7.4 million (including $2.3 million for UV disinfection at Main Pumps).

5.19.1 The average cost of improving the security of the above ground well heads is around $1,000.

5.19.2 The cost of the physical works to raise a below ground well head is $150,000 to $350,000 depending on the site and the depth to the aquifer. This work includes a full grout seal around the well casing; standard head works with a two way air vent, double bellows and double check valves; electrical upgrades, sensors and a flow meter; and an impermeable apron/plinth. 

5.19.3 The cost of the physical works to drill and develop a new well is $700,000 to $1,300,000 depending on the site and the depth to the aquifer.

5.19.4 Additional costs may be incurred if new plant, or upgrades to existing infrastructure, is required at the associated pump station.


 

5.20    The approach, and the proposed timeline, for each pump station is outlined below:

 

Pump Station &

Supply Zone

Well heads

Planned Remedial Works

Timeframe

Burnside

North West

1 below

5 above

Raise below ground well head, minor works to make above ground well heads secure

Tender closes Aug 2018

Works begin August

Completion November

Farrington

North West

1 below

4 above

Raise below ground well head, minor works to make above ground well heads secure

Tender closed July 2018

Works begin August

Completion November

Grampian

North West

1 below

1 above

Raise below ground well head, minor works to make above ground well head secure

Tender closed July 2018

Works begin August

Completion November

Hills

Central

1 below

2 above

Raise below ground well head, minor works to make above ground well heads secure

Tender closes Aug 2018

Works begin August

Completion December

Grassmere

Central

3 below

Drill one replacement well, raise two below ground well heads

Tender closes Nov 2018

Works begin August

Well heads Nov 2018

New well October 2019

Mays

Central

3 below

Drill one replacement well, raise two below ground well heads

Tender closes Dec 2018

Works begin Sept 2018

Well heads Nov 2018

New well October 2019

Kainga

Brooklands/Kainga

1 above

Grouting around well casing and minor works to make above ground well head secure

Tender closed July 2018

Works begin August

Completion October

 

Well head remediation works – tranche 2

5.21    We have confirmed the approach for full remediation works for a further 49 wells at 17 pump stations in the second tranche of works. These pump stations have been prioritised after considering the security of the source water, the capacity of the pump station and the likelihood of being able to progress the works without undue delay. The identified pump stations provide approximately 50% of the water supply for the city.

5.22    Planning and concept design is underway, tenders are planned for late 2018/early 2019 and construction is proposed for 2019. The number of wells that can be progressed at any one time is subject to the availability of drilling machines and specialist contractors. The timing of the works is constrained by the number of wells that can be taken out of service at any one time, especially over the high demand summer months. Further modelling is underway to refine the scheduling of the works to ensure security of the water supply across the city.


 

5.23    The proposed approach for each pump station is outlined below:

 

Pump Station &

Supply Zone

Well heads

Planned Remedial Works

Brooklands

Brookland/Kainga

2 below

Raise below ground well head for Well 1, abandon Well 2

Addington

Central

2 below

Raise below ground well heads

Blighs

Central

1 below

1 above

Raise below ground well head, minor works to make above ground well head secure

Hillmorton

Central

3 below

Raise below ground well heads (may drill two new wells to replace Thorrington and Palatine)

Sydenham

Central

2 below

2 drilled

Raise below ground well heads, complete head works on drilled wells

Trafalgar

Central

2 below

1 above

Raise below ground well heads, minor works to make above ground well head secure

Worcester

Central

2 below

Raise below ground well heads

St Johns

Central/Ferrymead

2 below

1 above

Raise below ground well heads, minor works to make above ground well head secure

Carters

Central/Rawhiti

4 below

Raise below ground well heads

Lake Terrace

Central/Rawhiti

1 below

2 above

Raise below ground well head, minor works to make above ground well heads secure

Auburn

Northwest

2 below

Raise below ground well head for Well 5, abandon Well 3

Crosbie

Northwest

2 below

1 above

Raise below ground well heads, minor works to make above ground well head secure

Burwood

Parklands

2 below

Raise below ground well heads

Picton

Riccarton

3 below

Raise below ground well heads

Denton

West

5 below

Raise below ground well heads

Dunbars

West

5 below

Raise 4 below ground well heads, abandon Well 4

Wainui

1 below

Raise below ground well head

 

5.24    The indicative timelines for the remediation work to bring all of these wells up to best practice, that is, with above ground well heads, would not enable us to recommend the complete removal of chlorine within the 12 month timeframe set out in the January resolution of Council. We are doing further work with our contractors and modelling of the network to see if these timelines can be brought forward.

5.25    We are looking at three other options to accelerate progress and will report back to Council, with revised the timelines, when we have confirmed the approach:

5.25.1 Seeking additional drilling contractors from around New Zealand or Australia

5.25.2 Remediation of below ground well heads, without raising above ground (noting that this is unlikely to meet the anticipated requirements of new standards)

5.25.3 UV disinfection at a number of pump stations.

Water conservation campaign

5.26    Summer water demand is approximately double that of winter. The need to have almost all of the pump stations in service over the summer months effectively precludes any major well head remediation works or drilling of new wells for approximately five months of the year.

5.27    We are planning a survey of residents to assess the appetite for water conservation and the measures that people would be willing to adopt. A campaign would begin in mid-August to encourage people to conserve water. The early evening is the peak time for water consumption and it is this period that would be specifically targeted. We also need the total daily demand to be lower so that the reservoirs do not run dry. 

5.28    Proposed approach:

·    Campaign begins mid-August and ramps up between December and February

·    We will reach out to everyone but our key audience is gardeners

·    General media schedule, similar to the last few year's Water Conservation schedules, but possibly a larger digital component

·    We would also like to get nurseries and garden centres on board.

5.29    If the water conservation campaign is successful then a higher proportion of the network would remain without chlorination and well head remediation works would be able to continue over the summer months.

International examples of unchlorinated urban water supplies

5.30    Drinking water is supplied to other cities around the world without the use of residual chlorine in the network. GHD have reported on a study of western European cities that rely on ground water sources and provided information on the methods used to control potential contamination (Attachment B: Non-chlorination case studies, GHD, July 2018).

5.31    There are eleven Dutch water supply companies providing water to approximately 17 million people across the Netherlands. Currently 85% of these supplies do not use residual chlorination in their pipe networks, except in the case of an emergency contamination event. In Switzerland that figure is 70% and in Germany 50%. The report notes that:

The Dutch philosophy is that contamination of water has to be prevented in any of these three stages (source, treatment, distribution) and that chemical treatment should be kept to a minimum.

5.32    The Dutch prefer groundwater sources (usually better quality than surface water) and generally provide an aeration and filtration process (to produce biologically stable water) prior to distribution to the network. A high quality distribution network, designed to improve water turnover and with tight control of delivery pressure, decreases the risk of contamination. Repair and shut down procedures are also rigorously controlled.

5.33    The public health outcomes of the Dutch approach are impressive and the reports notes that:

… the measures allow the Netherlands to achieve a rate of outbreaks of waterborne disease some 4 to 5 times lower than in the United Kingdom and the United States of America where residual disinfection is mandatory.

Public opinion in the Netherlands with regards to residual disinfection in drinking water, supports higher water pricing and hence investment to implement the above approach.

5.34    A comparison of Dutch water supply systems with Christchurch reveals much lower leakage rates (a proxy for the condition of the network), lower levels of E coli transgressions and higher costs for delivery of drinking water.

5.35    The report concludes:

In the Netherlands, Germany, and Switzerland the operation of demonstratively low (microbiological) risk water supply systems without the use of residual disinfection is reported in the literature. Some recent statistics suggest that systems that rely solely on residual disinfection have poorer health outcomes than those that have biologically stable source water, rigorous hygiene practices and multiple contamination barriers within the network.  The presence of a residual disinfectant does not guarantee lower rates of disease outbreaks.

However, these views should be considered in the context of the approach taken and the customer’s willingness to pay. 

This review has identified that it is possible to implement a non-chlorinated water supply that is similar to best practice in Western Europe. While Christchurch has a unique hydrogeological setting with relatively low risk source water, higher standards and barriers at the water source and in the distribution network may likely be required to reduce risks further.  

Central Government Three Waters Review, including its response to the Havelock North Inquiry

5.36    In 2018 the Government has released Cabinet papers relating to its Three Waters Review and the Government’s response to the recommendations of the Havelock North Inquiry (the Inquiry).

5.37    The December 2017 Cabinet paper summarised the findings of the Inquiry, agreed a set of actions and directed further work. It set up an independent Expert Drinking Water Advisory Committee to complement the advisory capacity of the Ministry of Health.

5.38    An April 2018 Cabinet paper from the Minister of Local Government related to the ongoing Three Waters Review.

5.39    A further April 2018 Cabinet paper from the Minister of Health agreed amendments to the Health Act 1956 and called for further advice:

·    Amendments to the Health Act:

To remove the 3 year consultation and 2 year gazette period for changes to the drinking water standards

Water Safety Plans to have implementation timetables

Streamline appointment of Drinking Water Assessors and use of accredited labs

·    Further advice on:

Mandatory residual treatment of drinking water unless supplier can demonstrate safety of the reticulation system

Mandatory compliance with the Drinking Water Standards

·    The Expert Advisory Committee has been asked to advise on:

Appropriateness of secure bore status as exemption from disinfection

Options to strengthen multi-barrier protections for drinking water

Review of the NZ standard for drilling, testing and maintenance of bores.

5.40    The Minister’s media release noted ‘the shift to ensure safer drinking water for everyone will require considerable effort and resources’ and his focus on ‘demonstrably safe’ drinking water signal a raising of the bar with respect to demonstrating safety and security.

5.41    Christchurch has delivered safe and high quality drinking water, without disinfection treatment, for many decades with excellent public health outcomes – there are no recorded incidents of water borne disease. The Council maintains its very good record of full bacterial compliance for the water distribution zones across the city.

5.42    The failures identified by the Havelock North Inquiry – poor knowledge of the aquifer and contamination risks; inadequate standard of care for the public drinking water supply; unacceptable delays in preparation of the Water Safety Plan; and delays to bore head inspections – do not feature in Christchurch. However we agree with the overarching principle that underpins the Inquiry findings, namely, the very high standard of care and diligence which should apply to drinking water supply.

5.42.1 The Council has worked with Environment Canterbury to understand the aquifer system and the contamination risks. The Land and Water Regional Plan provides the regulatory and policy framework for aquifer protection across the mapped Christchurch Groundwater Protection Zone.

5.42.2 The Northwest supply zone is the most vulnerable to surface contamination and an upgrade programme began in 2012 to drill new and deeper wells. In September 2016 Council resolved to accelerate this programme.

5.42.3 The Council has Water Safety Plans for each of its community water supplies across the district. To demonstrate secure groundwater status and compliance with the standards, each well head must be inspected by an expert in well head security every five years and signed off as secure. The Council has complied with this by having an external expert assess around 20 per cent of the well heads each year.

5.42.4 Following the release of the Stage 1 report of the Havelock North Inquiry in May 2017, staff investigated the critical control points in our water supply network. This prompted further improvements to below ground well heads that could be susceptible to surface water contamination under adverse conditions.

5.42.5 Since the Canterbury earthquakes, and until December 2017, the city’s water supply had a ‘provisionally secure’ status and complied with the drinking water standards without the need for treatment. On 22 August 2017, the annual compliance report was received from the Drinking Water Assessor confirming that the Christchurch water supply was compliant with the drinking water standards and commending the Council on having full bacterial compliance for all distribution zones.

5.42.6 In response to the Director General’s statement of 20 December 2017 and the loss of the ‘provisionally secure groundwater’ status and the Council has accelerated the well head repair and improvement programme (started in August 2017) and also temporarily chlorinated the water supply to reduce the risks to public health.

5.43    The Minister for Local Government, Hon Nanaia Mahuta, has acknowledged the scale of the drinking water challenge for New Zealand and said that ‘the status quo is simply not sustainable’. She has stated that the principle of public ownership of existing infrastructure will underpin the reforms and that local government will continue to be involved in the considerations of potential new models.

5.44    The concurrent review of the Three Waters sector, led by the Department of Internal Affairs, is assessing models, including the amalgamation of water services, to improve delivery. Options being considered include regional delivery mechanisms. Current examples within New Zealand, are Watercare in Auckland, and Wellington Water. Options are depicted by the following issued by the Department:

If we were to consider a new model, what might it look like? – Department of Internal Affairs

 

5.45    The Canterbury Mayoral Forum previously did some initial work looking at the options for shared services across the region for 2 or 3 waters (water supply, wastewater and possibly stormwater). This work is currently being updated.

5.46    Council staff will continue to engage with officials from the Ministry of Health and the Department of Internal Affairs to contribute to the development of policy for the regulation and delivery of public drinking water supplies.

 

 

Attachments

No.

Title

Page

a

Brief appraisal of water treatment technologies - Opus

16

b

Non-chlorination Case Studies GHD July 2018

21

 

 

Confirmation of Statutory Compliance

Compliance with Statutory Decision-making Requirements (ss 76 - 81 Local Government Act 2002).

(a) This report contains:

(i)  sufficient information about all reasonably practicable options identified and assessed in terms of their advantages and disadvantages; and

(ii) adequate consideration of the views and preferences of affected and interested persons bearing in mind any proposed or previous community engagement.

(b) The information reflects the level of significance of the matters covered by the report, as determined in accordance with the Council's significance and engagement policy.

 

Signatories

Authors

Helen Beaumont - Programme Manager - Water Supply Improvement Programme

John Moore - Manager Planning and Delivery

Approved By

Karleen Edwards - Chief Executive

  


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09 August 2018

 

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